After five years of protracted negotiations, and tireless efforts by endurance swimmer and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Patron of the Oceans, Lewis Pugh, the Ross Sea in Antarctica was finally declared a Marine Protected Area (MPA) in October 2016. At the annual meeting of the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), delegates from 24 nations and the European Union have voted unanimously to create the world's largest protected area on land or sea....
CSR can be an effective tool for mitigating climate change. It is the duty of corporations to redress climate change through environment-friendly manufacturing techniques, adoption of a green, transparent policy and environmental disclosure.
The National Monsoon Mission successfully achieved its projected objective of developing a dynamic framework for operational forecasts. It is currently working on developing an indigenous Indian model that can accurately predict monsoon variability in all its aspects.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) in its Climate Change 2014 Synthesis Report published in 2015 states that increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions together with other anthropogenic drivers such as aerosols, land cover and solar radiation are extremely likely to have been the dominant cause of the observed warming since mid-20th century. To cater to this the Indian government launched National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) in 2008, which outlines India’s...
Geological processes in the Himalaya that bring natural catastrophes are continuously in motion. Though the natural processes can never be completely controlled the impact can be minimised through sustainable use of natural resources and effective planning in tune with the terrain and geo-location.
The developed countries while understanding their historic responsibilities towards climate change should assist the developing countries with technology transfer, mitigation and funding to ensure climate justice.
Agricultural land converted to non-agricultural uses is often understood as ‘development’. While high growth, rich states have managed to hold on, the low growth poorer states have lost significant amounts of land under plough causing distress to their agricultural communities.
Surface water salinity (S) and δ18O measurements were repeated again in another cruise in 2009 CE after our first work in 2006 CE, to understand the temporal variability, if any, in the salinity- δ18O relationship and hence the surface water properties of the Southern Ocean. Data show more scatter in the δ18O values during 2009 CE relative to 2006 CE. Also a significant difference in the intercepts of the S- δ18O relations between 2009 CE and 2006 CE was detected.
Non-invasive imaging of land through ice sheets has provided huge steps forward in the mapping and understanding of these features since the 1950s. Historically, airborne Radio-Echo Sounding (RES) has been undertaken over cold dry polar ice sheets, which are virtually transparent to radiowaves, and depths of investigation of up to 5 km are not unknown. Since then, developments in radar equipment and analytical techniques have enabled the derivation of other significant information about the structure, composition, layering and dynamics of these major ice masses and related physical processes. The first use of impulse radar (Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR) for glaciological purposes was in the early 1970s. Since the mid-1990s, there has been huge growth in the use of commercial GPR systems in particular over temperate glaciers, which are at their pressure melting point. RES systems were first deployed from large aircraft in Polar Regions. GPR systems were originally used in ground-based investigations of temperate glaciers and have been used with increasing benefit in similar ways in Polar Regions. However, GPR systems are now being mounted onto helicopters for use in rugged mountain environments, such as in the European Alps and the Indian Himalaya. By examining the radar characteristics of key glaciological features in both Polar and Himalayan regions it is possible to design optimal radar surveys for a variety of glaciological applications. Such surveys, such as may be undertaken in the Indian Himalaya, can produce information that is key to climate change monitoring, measuring glacier volume fluxes, enhanced mass balance estimations, and that forms a high-quality baseline against which changes over time can be measured.
Most of the glaciers in Svalbard are of the surge type and so the front position of a single glacier cannot be a good climatic indicator. As most of these are slow-moving, the front will shrink and retreat between surges and so the front position gives little information on whether the total ice mass is growing or shrinking. Mass balance measurements are therefore necessary to calculate the total volume change accurately. The mean winter accumulation on Brøggerbreen during the period 1967-1993 is 0.71 ±0.16 m (water equivalent – w.e.) and the mean summer ablation has been -1.15 ±0.31 m (w.e.) with a mean annual specific net mass balance of - 0.43 m (w.e.) as reported by earlier European studies. The Glacier Research Group, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) began mass balance monitoring on Vestre Brøggerbreen in 2011, in collaboration with National Centre for Antarctic and Ocean Research (NCAOR), Goa and Geological Survey of India (GSI), Lucknow. Ten meter deep stakes were fixed on the Vestre Brøggerbreen Glacier by using the steam drill in the summer of 2011. On Vestre-I glacier (VB-I), 11 deep stakes were fixed in the ablation zone. On Vestre-II glacier (VB-II), 12 deep stakes were fixed both in the accumulation zone and the ablation zone. Thus, a network of a total of 23 deep stakes has been installed on Vestre Brøggerbreen Glacier. Apart from this ground penetrating radar measurement were also made to assess ice thickness. The mass balance monitoring will be continued in the upcoming summer and the first fruits of Indian cryospheric research in the Svalbard are expected soon.