In India, the number of population is increasing rapidly (crosses over 10 million recently). To feed the growing population huge amount of food grains as well as industrial crops are to be cultivated. But it is observed that the farmers cultivate the land unscientifically with the help of drastic evolutionary modern technologies like chemical fertilizers, pesticides and compost. For these, eco-system is destroyed, environmental resources are degraded, health hazard has taken place and the environment as such is polluted to a significant extent. This paper encompasses over the use of modern technologies especially chemical fertilizers, pesticides and compost in agricultural development of Goalpara Village and its adverse effects as well as remedial measures.
The two main objectives of this study are as follows:
- To examine the impact of splinter technologies like-chemical fertilizers, pesticides and compost in agriculture as well as social landscape.
- To recover the adverse effects of chemical fertilizes, pesticides and compost and it’s suggested policy measures.
Data Base: Data have been collected from following sources:
- Primary source i.e. field analysis and interview to villagers based on the schedules of household.
- Secondary sources i.e. diverse books and destination papers.
At first we collect the data about the cultivable land, amount of use chemical fertilizers, pesticides, compost, and number of household, normal production and the production after using the advance technologies by different peasants. Then with the highest and lowest values of the amount of cultivated land we generate range of cultivated land in bigha and put the numbers of household (tally method) that are fall in every range. To find out the use of amount of fertilizer or pesticides or compost in per bigha in kg. we have used this formula – total amount (in kg) of use of individual technologies (chemical Fertilizers or pesticides or compost.) in each range of land /total amount (in bigha) of cultivated land of those range to calculate the production per bigha in kg. We use this formula- total amount (in kg) of production in each range/total amount of (bigha) cultivable land of each range.
Introduction: Agriculture is the chief occupation of the people of this village, the best part of the working population being cultivators and agricultural lab ours. The principal crops that are include paddy, wheat, mustard seeds, pulses, potatoes, vegetables and sugarcane. Aush, Aman and Boro varieties of paddy are cultivated during high humidity and well distributed precipitation during the monsoon. The main purpose of the present study is to observe the impact if drastic evolutionary modern technologies according ton different size classes of agricultural farms. Before the analysis of this study it is necessaries to find out different socio economic conditions which are responsible for agricultural activities.
As evident from kg./bigha use of chemical fertilizer, pesticide and compost in Aus fields by different section of farmer according to their quantity of land, farmers acquiring below 23 bigha land yield crops from their land after use of aforesaid substances in their agricultural land such as 140.55 as against 173.45 kg., 321.45 as against 308.50 kg. and 309.25 kg. as against 264 kg. respectively. Same way as the survey report suggests the low medium, medium group of farmer and big farmers are also able to gain bigger output as compare to the normal production. So overall it is seen that use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides enable the farmers to produce greater amount of crops except in the case of marginal farmers whose production amount has been reported to have decline after use of the above said ancillaries.
In the case of Amon crops, the use of advance technologies has yield at the desire result for different classes of farmers as mention below. For the marginal, small and low group of farmers’ production has short up to 220.55 kg., 438.78 kg. and 460.50 kg. respectively as compare to the normal production of 173.00 kg., 360.50kg and 375.13 kg. Similar increase is noticeable in the case of low medium, medium and big section of farmers who’s after use production are in all cases higher than normal production thanks to use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides. Borga and Krishan land holders are same way getting benefited from the above use of advance technologies whose per bigha production has increase at least 50 to 60 kg. from normal production.
In the case of Boro crops, the advance technologies have yield a desire result for different classes of farmers as mention below. The farmers appearing below 23 bigha land yield crops from their land after use of aforesaid substances in their agricultural land such as 220.50 kg. as against 180 kg., 525.50 kg. as against 445 kg. and 350 kg. as against 260 kg. Same way as the survey report suggest that low medium, medium and big farmers are also able to gain bigger output as compare to the normal production. Borga and Krishan land holders are same way getting benefited from the above use of advance technologies whose per bigha production has increased at least 55 to 60 kg. from normal production.
In the case of Potato production, the advance technologies has yielded the desire result for different classes of farmers. As the survey report suggest that small, low medium and medium fanners are able to gain bigger output as compare to the normal production. Those who are big farmers are same way benefited from the use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides. Barga land holders are also getting benefited from the above mentioned advance technologies whose per bigha production have increased at least 80 kg.
In the case of Mustard production, different section of farmers like marginal, small and low medium land holders are getting benefited from the use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides. For the medium and big farmers’ production have increased to 50 and 114 respectively as compare to the normal production of 32 kg. and 92 kg. Barga land holders are same way getting benefited from the above use of advance technologies whose per bigha production has increased at least 16 kg. from normal production.
- The continuous use of pesticides kills earthworm, snails, and snakes. As for example now, the edge of destruction we can not find out small hillock like features made by earthworm which is the source of soil fertility.
- Many animals (like goats, ducks, cows, dogs, etc.) are also affected by the drinking of water in the ‘pesticides sprayed fields.
- In this case study region most of the farmers are very poor and can not afford to put on masks and globes during spraying pesticides so they developed many kinds of skin diseases and they feel dizzy while spraying pesticides.
- When the farmers walk on a field where THAIMED (dust pesticides) is sprayed they are affected with a disease like CHILBLAIN.
- The excessive use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers make ground hard and ultimately within a few years some of the agricultural land of this area become losses its fertility.
- In this area due to loftier use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers the original taste of rice has lost its own identity.
- There are many cows are stricken with many kinds of disease like fever, throat swelling, dysentery etc. due to eating of “pesticides-sprayed” straw.
- Before 1990, due to rare use of revolutionary pesticides and chemical fertilizers, small- tiny ground level grasses were also available in this area after few months of harvesting. This is the main source of soil fertility. But today it is not available in those fields. .
- Calcium is an essential component for the growth of paddy. But an excessive use of pesticides prevents the solidification of calcium and this rice damages human ovary.
- In this village, due to surface run-off urea mixed water falls in different ponds. So water hyacinths are grown in immense. This in turn exhausts the co2 in water, causes inconveniences to the respiration of fishes and kills them. The rotten fishes create a gas, which pollutes air and water. Some of the harmful chemicals gather as sediment at the bottom of the pond, which leads to the death of fungi and bacteria suspended in the water so all the fishes are stricken with many diseases.
- The strength of straw is diminished and its size is getting smaller due to the excessive use chemical fertilizers. In this respect we can elaborate that poorest people are largely depended on straw to make their houses roof. So due to diminishing of the strength of straw, the rate of frequency to construct their roofs has been increasing today. For this causes farmers’ economy roughly affected.
- As a result, for the excessive mixing of chemical fertilizers with soil many paddy fields turn in to fallow land as well as uncultivable waste land and those are for the purpose of grazing of cattle, establishment of brick kilns which also born air pollution.
- Nowadays the parent seeds are almost extinct because huge HYV seeds are prepared from this original seeds and to cultivate this advanced seeds huge amount of ground water is needed, which is also related to the global problem like DESALINIZATION, DESERTIFICATION, and losses of ground water level. As for example, during surveying we find out there are quite number of agricultural fields which become near most saline type ground.
- Dissolved Nitrates and phosphorous leaching from the agricultural fields through surface run-off are added with nearer different ponds and KOPAI River causes EUTROPHIC ATION OF WATER-leading to a serious loss of aquatic life.
- Production of Nitrous acid from fertilizers and Methane from water -logged rice are two most important pollutants being also the contributors to the LEAKAGE OF THE ATMOSPHERIC OZONE LAYER.
The core causes of the crisis is not to be found how man interact with nature but how man interact with each other that to solved environmental crisis, we must solve the problem of paucity, racial unfairness and war so such solution are feasible only when we change our philosophy our life, where consumerism have no place and the value of life are held high. To solve these problems, the basic needs is to adopt agriculture policies to take the environment into account, reduce agricultural pollution to enhance the optimistic contribution that agriculture makes to environment. And also in order to regulate the production, use of fertilizers and pesticides suitable legislation should be enacted in all countries and their compliance monitored the solutions lies perhaps in sustainable development. So lastly we can develop the most important key point to solve this adverse effect, these are as follows.
- Firmly enforcing and strengthening the existing environmental regulation.
- Controlling agricultural production through decoupling income Support from price support.
- Reviewing the current research programme.
- Sprouting new ones which seek to reduced the adverse effect associated with the use of chemical fertilizers.
- Develop an awareness concept among farmers.
- To adopt the anti-pesticides programme.
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