Agricultural Land use Changes in India

The relevance of land for agriculture can be understood thus; firstly, agriculture is a land intensive activity, which means that it requires more land compared to non-agricultural activities in relation to the respective output. Secondly, quality of land has a critical bearing on agricultural output per unit area, while it is of marginal consequence to […]

Continue Reading

Stable Isotopic Study of Southern Ocean Surface Waters: An Update

Introduction The Southern Ocean, defined as the region between the south of 60°S and Antarctic, is an important region that affects the climate of the Earth. The main bottom and intermediate water masses of the world ocean originate here. Despite its close relationship with changing atmospheric conditions, the vertical and horizontal structures of the Southern […]

Continue Reading

Ground Penetrating Radar Surveys for Detailed Glaciological Investigations in the Polar and Himalayan Regions

Introduction   The investigation of Polar ice sheets using radio-waves (Radio-Echo Sounding – RES) from aircraft began in earnest in the early 1960s and led to major steps forward in the mapping of such features, with the discovery of whole mountain ranges buried beneath the ice. Analysis of reflections within the ice itself provides important […]

Continue Reading

Glacier Mass Balance Studies in Brøggerbreen, Svalbard Region

Introduction Glaciers are instruments in moderating, modifying and modulating the weather and climate. The winter inputs and summer losses of mass from ice sheets, ice caps, and glaciers covering more than 2 million km2 of the Polar north vary in response to climate changes and affect global sea level as increments of water are released […]

Continue Reading

Evolution of Rocky Oases in East Antarctic: Study by Indian Scientists

Introduction Antarctic is an awe inspiring coldest, windiest and the most inaccessible continent on the surface of the Earth. Most of this continent is covered under a thick mantle of ice except about 2 per cent of the area that shows land exposures (Figure 1). It is from study of such areas that the history […]

Continue Reading

True Psychrophiles and Part Time Psychrophiles in the Antarctic

Introduction Earth’s ice-free polar regions contain a wide range of biomes that support the growth of diverse microorganisms, some metazoa, and a few plants despite freezing conditions and winter darkness. Numerous culture-dependent and culture independent studies of polar and alpine samples ranging from glacial ice, soil, lake water, sea-ice and polar ocean seawater have been […]

Continue Reading

The Effect of a Temperature Rise on the Sulfate Reducing Rates in Cold Marine Sediments of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Arctic Ocean)

Introduction Temperature rise globally are likely to increase the rate of organic matter decomposition resulting in substantial CO2 release. The marine carbon cycle in Arctic regions currently occupies a prominent role in the study of climate warming effects as there is evidence from observational and modelling studies for strong seasonal temperature increases in northern high-latitude […]

Continue Reading

Squid Jigging Operations in the Southern Ocean

Introduction Cephalopod resources of the Southern Ocean are considered to be distinct from other oceans with high levels of endemism in squids and particularly in the Octopods (Allcock et al., 2001; Collins and Rodhouse, 2006) Loliginid squids, sepiids and sepiolids are reported to be absent in Southern Ocean and all the squids are oceanic pelagic species. Cephalopods […]

Continue Reading

Psychrotrophic Metal Tolerant Bacteria for Mobilisation of Metals in Antarctic Waters

Introduction Antarctic has for a long time been viewed as a pristine environment as compared to other oceanic regions experiencing both local and global anthropogenic influences only over larger time scales (Bonner 1984, Evans et al., 2000). This remotest region of the earth is a model system where human assisted biological invasion can be understood […]

Continue Reading