Magazine Articles # Oceans

Rising Global Sea Level: Where are we?

Observational data on sea level rise, available since 1870, shows a constant rise. The multiple causes responsible for it have been traced to rising global temperatures, melting of land-based ice in all the Polar Regions, including Himalaya and the thermal expansion of ocean water etc.

Magazine Articles # Oceans

Designing Polar Research Vessels

Observations in Polar Regions are essential for understanding changing climate. This article provides insights into how a floating laboratory—the Polar Research Vessel, is designed and built to meet the mission requirements of scientific users.

Magazine Articles # Oceans

International Indian Ocean Expedition-2: A Basin-Wide Research Initiative

The Second International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE, 2015-2020) built on the legacy of the first IIOE-1 (1959-65) seeks to advance our understanding of the dynamics of the Indian Ocean and allied scientific issues.

Magazine Articles # Oceans

The Oceans of the World

Oceans play a major role in the hydrological cycle, moderate the climate and act as the primary sink for carbon dioxide. The complex bathymetry of ocean beds, with long mountain ranges, mounds, volcanic craters and marine sediments, have been revealed by deep sea exploration.

Magazine Articles # Weather n Climate

Local Level Weather Forecasts

With the development of a 12 km probabilistic weather forecasting model, an unprecedented improvement in forecasting systems has been made by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune. It is now possible to provide sufficient lead time for exogenous weather at district or sub-district level.

Earth Science # Environment

Soil Erosion and Conservation in India

Soil erosion in India Excessive soil erosion in India combined with consequent high rate of sedimentation in reservoirs and decreased soil fertility has led to grave environmental problems. Soil erosion mostly affects practically all kinds of lands such as the forest lands, agricultural lands, arid and semi-arid lands, surface mines, roads, construction sites, coastal areas etc. Further, since soil formation is a very slow process, the erosion of the upper layer of the soil leaves it barren for a long...

Earth Science # Science

What is soil liquefaction? Causes, effects and measures

“A Phenomenon whereby a saturated or partially saturated soil substantially loses strength and stiffness in response to an applied stress, usually earthquake shaking or other sudden change in stress condition, causing it to behave like a  liquid” is called Soil Liquefaction (Hazen,1918). There are two types of soil liquefaction. 1) Flow liquefaction 2) Cyclic Mobility  How does Soil Liquefaction Work: The soil is a mixture of soil particles that stay connected together. These particles...

Weather n Climate

Normal Rainfall Predicted for Southwest Monsoon 2018

India Meteorological Department (IMD) is issuing the forecast for the southwest monsoon seasonal rainfall (June to September) for the country as a whole in two stages. The first stage forecast is issued in April and the second stage forecast is issued in June. IMD is using state-of-the-art Statistical Ensemble Forecasting system (SEFS) which is critically reviewed and improved regularly through in-house research activities. Since 2012, IMD is also using the dynamical global climate forecasting system...

Earth Science

Volcanoes around the world – what is likely to become active

A volcano is the emission of lava, ash and gases from deep under the earth’s surface through a crack on the surface of the earth. According to the Plate Tectonic Theory, the earth’s lithosphere (which includes the crust and upper mantle) is made of tectonic plates. These tectonic plates meet at three different kinds of boundaries namely convergent, divergent and transform. Due to the movement of these plates along the boundaries or faults, tectonic activities occur. These tectonic activities...

Earth Science

When is the next ice age due?

Ice Age is one of the most famous animated film series that deals with the life and struggles of animals that had been part of the earth’s biodiversity during the ice age. What is an ice age and when is the next ice age due? Ice age, which is also known as glacial age, is the refrigeration of the earth’s climate. Ice sheets and other types of glaciers expand to cover large areas of land, beyond the Polar Regions, reaching up to the temperate zones of today. The chronology of the earth’s geological...