The Himalayan ecosystem has 51 million people who practice hill agriculture and whose vulnerability is expected to increase with changing climatic regime. The National Action Plan on Climate Change envisages a National Mission for sustaining the Himalayan ecosystem to evolve management measures for sustaining and safeguarding the Himalayan glacier and mountain ecosystem. An observational and monitoring network for the Himalayan environment will be established to assess freshwater resources and health of the ecosystem. Community based management of these ecosystems will be promoted with incentives to community organisations and Panchayats for protection and enhancement of forested lands. In mountainous regions, the aim will be to maintain two thirds of the area under forests in order to prevent erosion and land degradation and ensure the stability of the fragile ecosystem.