Except for parts of the Andaman-Nicobar Islands, there is no pristine area left in India today. The decline of marine resources in India goes back to the time of Gardiner, who in 1936, expressed concern about the degradation that was taking place. By the end of the last century and the beginning of the present century, very few marine areas remained unaffected.
Mangroves and sea grass are being cut down for building of ports, roads, aquaculture and agriculture, mudflats and salt marshes are being taken over for industrial and infrastructural development. Coral reefs suffer from destructive fishing practices, industrial pollution, sedimentation, besides coral harvesting for ornamental work and construction activity.
At a time when climate change is all set to alter coastal marine ecosystems and affect the range of species at a rate faster than we can discover them (Keesing and Irvine, 2005), it is high time that we increase awareness levels on the extent and nature of our rich marine biodiversity, and take concrete steps to keep our coastlines ‘swachchh’, rather than use it as a dump yard and destroy all we have. It will also require a mammoth exercise aimed at documenting lesser known, though economically as important, species in our maritime environment.
Anandale, T. N. and S. Kemp. 1915. Fauna of Chilka Lake. Memoirs of Indian Museum, 5: 55-63.
Arjan Rajasuriya et al. 2000. Status of Coral Reefs in South Asia: Bangladesh, India, Maldives and Sri Lanka. Clive Wilkinson (Ed), Status of Coral Reefs of the World, 2000. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville MC QLD 4810, pp. 95-116.
Balachandran, S. 1995. Shore birds of Marine National Park, Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society, 92: 303-313.
Chakrapany, S. 1984. Studies on Marine Invertebrates: Scyphomedusae of the Indian and adjoining Seas. PhD thesis submitted to the University of Madras pp. 206.
Day, F. 1889. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Fishes 1, pp. 548, London, Taylor and Francis.
FSI. 2015. India State of Forest Report 2015 – Forest Survey of India. Available at: fsi.nic.in/isfr-2015/isfr-2015-executive-summary.pdf
James, D. B. 1986. Recent Advances in Marine Biology, New Delhi. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers. (In) James, P. S. B. R. (Ed) pp. 569-591.
Kannan, L., T. Thangaradjou, and P. Anantharaman. 1999. Status of seagrasses of India, Seeweed Research Utilisation. 21: 25-33.
Kathiresan, K. 1999. Mangrove Atlas and Status of Species of India. New Delhi, Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, pp. 235. Available at: FSI. 2015. http://fsi.nic.in/details.php?pgID=sb_62.
Keesing, J. and T. Irvine. 2005. Coastal Biodiversity of Indian Ocean: the known, the unknown and the knowable, Indian Journal of Marine Sciences. 34 pp 11-26.
Maheswarudu, G. and A. Vineetha. 2013. Littoral Oligochaete Pontodrilus bermudensis Beddard: A potential source for Arachidonic acid that stimulates maturation in penaeid shrimp. The Journal of Veterinary Science Photon, 114 pp 290-300.
Mammen, T. A. 1963. On a collection of hydroids from South India. I. Suborder Athecata, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 5(1) pp 27–61.
Menon, M. G. K. 1931. The Hydromedusae of Madras. Bulletin of Madras Government Museum (Natural History), 3(2) pp 1-32.
Pillai, C. S. G. 1967. Catalogue of corals in the reference collections of Central Marine Fishery Research Institute. Bulletin of Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. 7 pp 23-30.
Rajan, R., et al., 2015. Status and review of health of Indian coral reefs. Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries 3 pp 1-14.
Ramalingam J. R. 2000. Golden jubilee Celebrations Souvenir, 2000. Recreation Club of Central Marine Fishery Research Institute, Mandapam Camp. pp 81-83.
Sailas, E. G. and S. Kalimuthu. 1987. Commercial exploitation of seaweeds in India. Central Marine Fishery Research Institute Bulletin, 41 pp 55-59.
Sastry, D. R. K. 1998. Echinoderms. (In) Faunal Diversity of India, Kolkata, Zoological Survey of India. pp. 398-403.
Satyanarayana Rao, K. and M. Balaji 1988. Biological fouling at Port Kakinada, Godavari Estuary. pp. 551–574. Thompson, M. F., R. Sarojini, and R. Nagabhushanam, (Eds.) Marine biodeterioration, Advanced techniques applicable to the Indian Ocean. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam.
Smith M A, 1931. (In) Fauna of British India, etc. Reptiles and Amphibia. Loricata. Testudines, London, Taylor and Francis Ltd. pp 18.
Subba Rao, N. V. 1991. Mollusca, (In) Animal Resources of India. Kolkata, Director (Ed), Zoological Survey of India. pp 125-147.
Subba Rao, N. V. 1998. Mollusca, (In) Faunal Diversity in India. Kolkata, Director (Ed), Zoological Survey of India. pp 104-117.
Subba Rao, N. V. and A. Dey. 2000. Catalog of Marine Mollusca of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Records of Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper. 187 pp 1-323.
Talwar, P. K. and Kakkar, R. K. 1984. Commercial sea fishes of India, Handbook. Kolkata, Director (Ed), Zoological Survery of India. pp 997.
Thomas, P.A. 1998. Faunal diversity in India: Porifera, Faunal diversity in India. Alfred, J.R.B., A.K. Das and A.K. Sanyal (Eds), ENVIS Centre, Calcutta, Zoological Survey of India.
ZSI. 2007. Azooxanthellate hard corals (Scleractinia) from India. In: George RY. Cairns, SD. (Eds.). Conservation and adaptive management of seamount and deep-sea coral ecosystems. Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science. Miami: University of Miami. pp 209–214.
ZSI. 2003. Handbook on Hard Corals of India Kolkata. Director (ED), Zoological Survey of India. pp 266.
ZSI. 2004. Bibliography and checklist of corals and coral reef associated organisms of India. Records of Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Paper 226. pp 648.
ZSI. 2015b. Lesser known animals of India. Kolkata, Director (Ed), Zoological Survey of India.
ZSI. 2012. Marine mammal species of India. Kochi, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. pp 228.
Worm, B. et al. 2006. Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services. Science 314 (5800) pp 787–790.
Yogesh Kumar, J.S., C. Raghunathan, R. Raghuraman, C.R. Sreeraj and K. Venkataraman 2014. Handbook on Gorgonians (Octocorallia) of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Kolkata, Director (Ed), Zoological Survey of India. pp. 119.