Fish Stats

By: Staff Reporter
Fisheries

An overview

The fisheries sector contributed Rs 67913 crores to the gross domestic product (GDP at current prices) during 2009-2010, amounting to 0.96 per cent of India’s total GDP (MoSPI, 2011). The share of fisheries sector in the total GDP at factor cost in current prices increased from 0.40 per cent in 1950-51 to 0.96 per cent in 2009-10, recording an increase of 140 per cent (Fig 1). The fisheries sector has also been one of the major contributors of foreign exchange earnings. During 2010-11, export of marine products reached 813 091 tonnes valued at Rs 12901.47 crore and 2.857 billion USD.

The fisheries sector contributed Rs 67913 crores to the gross domestic product (GDP at current prices) during 2009-2010, amounting to 0.96 per cent of India’s total GDP (MoSPI, 2011). The share of fisheries sector in the total GDP at factor cost in current prices increased from 0.40 per cent in 1950-51 to 0.96 per cent in 2009-10, recording an increase of 140 per cent (Fig 1). The fisheries sector has also been one of the major contributors of foreign exchange earnings. During 2010-11, export of marine products reached 813 091 tonnes valued at Rs 12901.47 crore and 2.857 billion USD.

Article Figure 10 A
Fig 1: GDP from fisheries and its contribution to agriculture sector

 

Source: Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation: 2011 Annual and Quarterly Estimate of GDP at Current Prices, Base Year 2004-05 and Marine Products Export Development Authority 2011

 

Fish production and trend: Fish production in India has shown an increasing trend from 0.72 million metric tonne (mmt) in 1950-51 to reach 8.288 mmt in 2010-11(provisional). In case of marine fisheries, production has increased from 0.53 mmt in 1950-51 to 3.220 mmt in 2010 -11 with a growth rate of 4.62 per cent. In the inland sector, the growth has been steady, increasing from 0.218 mmt during 1950-51 to about 5.068 mmt in 2010-11, with an annual growth rate of 4.21 per cent (Fig. 2).

Marine: The Indian marine waters harbour around 1707 species of fish, of which about 200 species are commercially significant. The gross value of the marine fish landings at the landing centre level is estimated at Rs 19753 crores and at the retail level at Rs 28511 crores (SEETTD, 2011). Gujarat has emerged as the leading producer of marine fish in the country during 2009-2010, followed by Kerala, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Time-series trend in landings of marine fisheries shows considerable variation through the period 1950-2010. These changes are: increase in number of species harvested; and changes in catch composition marked by steady decline of some species and increase in the others. Another feature of the decadal landing trends is that among various groups, the contribution by pelagic and demersal fin fish resources has shown marked increase while the crustaceans (shrimps) and molluscs fluctuate around a flat trend. This adds relevance to the argument that quantum increase need not necessarily indicate increase in value of the products.

Article Figure 10 B
Table 1: Fisheries resources of India

 

 

Inland: The freshwater culture resources in the country comprise 2.41 mha of ponds and tanks. India is basically a carp country with more than 75 per cent of the production being contributed by carps alone. The other significant contributor in recent years is Pangasius species with India now being the third largest producer of Pangasius in the world after Vietnam and Thailand. Since the early eighties, development of brackish water fish culture has gained prominence. About 1.2 mha has been estimated as amenable for brackish water aquaculture in the coastal areas of the country. Also tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon), the exotic white leg shrimp (Littopenaeus vannamei) are becoming popular. The sector, despite being unorganised, scattered and diffused, is still an important source of ancillary jobs for the rural population, especially in marketing, retailing, transportation, etc. Though fisheries have been recognised as a thrust area in the successive Five-Year Plans, scant attention has been awarded to the development of inland fisheries resources.

Article Figure 10 C
Fig 2: Fish production trends -1950-51 to 2010-2011(P)

Sources: (i) Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (2009), Handbook of Fisheries Statistics, 2008. Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. (ii) Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries (2011), Annual Report, 2010-11. Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India.

 

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