Socio-Economic Profile of States

By: Staff Report
Inter-state comparisons of socio-economic development of select states based on available indicators from the recent Economic Survey of India show some interesting results.
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Kerala is the best performing state in terms of the two indicators—decadal growth of population (4.9 per cent) and sex ratio (1084) and is well ahead of other states. Andhra Pradesh is a distant second in terms of population growth and third in terms of sex ratio with Tamil Nadu in second place in terms of sex ratio. Bihar has the highest decadal growth of population (25.4) and Haryana the lowest sex ratio (879).



Bihar is the best performing state in terms of growth rate of both gross state domestic product (GSDP) 2012-13 (15.1 per cent) and average GSDP 2005-06 to 2012-13 (9.9 per cent) and also per capita income growth 2012-13 (13.9 per cent). Madhya Pradesh is another state that has performed well. Gujarat and Kerala are the other two states that have performed well and is well above the all India average. However, in terms of absolute values of GSDP and per capita income, Maharashtra and Haryana respectively are at the top. There is no single worst performer in terms of all these indicators. While Tamil Nadu has the lowest growth in GSDP 2012-13 and Assam the lowest average GSDP growth, Rajasthan has the lowest per capita income growth in 2012-13.



Poverty estimates indicate that Bihar which had the second highest poverty headcount ratio (HCR) in 2004-05 moved to first place in 2011-12 with the HCR at 33.7 per cent relegating Odisha to second place. While the all India poverty HCR was 21.9 per cent, states like Madhya Pradesh, Assam, and Uttar Pradesh, besides Bihar and Odisha had above the all India poverty levels in 2011-12. However, in terms of rural poverty, both Odisha and Madhya Pradesh were at the top followed by Bihar and Assam. Kerala had the lowest poverty (7.1 per cent) followed by Himachal Pradesh (8.1 per cent) and Punjab (8.3 per cent).


Rural-Urban Disparity

Odisha followed by Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh had the lowest average monthly per capita expenditure (MPCE) in rural areas and Bihar followed by Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh the lowest MPCE in urban areas in 2011-12. The highest MPCE could be seen in Kerala and Haryana in rural and urban areas respectively with least expenditure on food share in Kerala compared to other states.



Rural unemployment rate was lowest in Gujarat followed by Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in both 2011-12 and 2004-05. The rural unemployment rate of 3 per thousand in 2011-12 in Gujarat was much below the 17 per thousand all India average. Urban unemployment at 8 per thousand in 2011-12 in Gujarat was way below the all India level of 34 per thousand. Maharashtra with 23 per thousand was a distant second. While Kerala’s unemployment rate (both urban and rural) has fallen in 2011-12, it is still the highest. This could be due to unemployment of educated particularly women who are in search of the right job. This is also indicated in the lower labour force participation rate (LFPR) of females in the age group 15-59 years, with the LFPR of rural females being lower than the all India average. After Kerala, Assam followed by Bihar, West Bengal, Haryana and Odisha had high rural unemployment and Bihar followed by West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh and Haryana had high urban unemployment.



Infant mortality rate (IMR) in 2012 was the lowest in Kerala (12) and highest in Madhya Pradesh (56) followed by Assam (55), Odisha, and Uttar Pradesh (53 each) against a national IMR of 42. Birth rate was also lowest in Kerala (14.9) and highest in Bihar (27.7) against a national average of 21.6. Death rate was lowest in Maharashtra and West Bengal (6.3) and highest in Odisha (8.5) against a national average of 7.0.



Madhya Pradesh (135.2) followed by Bihar (127.7) had the highest gross enrolment ration(GER) in the age group 6-10 years during 2010-11 while Punjab (84.3) had the lowest. GER in the age group 11-13 years was highest in Himachal Pradesh (113.8) followed by Tamil Nadu (112.3) and lowest in Bihar (64.6) followed by Assam (67.9). The relatively lower 11-13 years GER compared to 6-10 years GER indicates that the transition of students from primary to upper primary classes is relatively lower than the entry to primary classes. Pupil-teacher ratios at all India levels of education-primary, middle, and high schools—are very high in states like Uttar Pradesh and Bihar affecting the quality of education.


Financial Inclusion

The coverage of all types of commercial banks has been expanded in all the states, with a total number of 1,16,448 branches at all India level in 2013. Uttar Pradesh (14,014) has highest number of bank branches followed by Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh in 2013.


Key Social-sector Programmes

While there are state-wise indicators for some social-sector programmes, it is not possible to evaluate the performance of states based just on numbers. Progress in terms of 24×7 primary and other health centre facilities under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) is highest in Karnataka (2328) followed by Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan, and lowest in Himachal Pradesh (156) and Haryana (398).

The average person-days per household under the Mahatma Gandhi NREGA during 2013-14 is the highest in Tamil Nadu (59 person-days) followed by Kerala (57 person-days) and lowest in Assam (24 person-days) followed by Punjab (33 person-days) against the national average of 46 person-days. While the share of women employed under Mahatma Gandhi NREGA is the highest in Kerala (93.4 per cent) followed by Tamil Nadu (84.1 per cent), it is lowest in Uttar Pradesh (22.2 per cent) followed by Assam (24.8 per cent).

The overall target achievement for the Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY) in 2013-14 was 44 per cent during 2013-14 and Kerala (97.7 per cent) followed by Andhra Pradesh (83.3 per cent) and Karnataka (82.6 per cent) had the highest target achievements and Punjab (10.6 per cent) followed by Himachal Pradesh (17.1 per cent) the lowest.

The inter-state comparisons of performance of states based on different available indicators furnish some clear policy pointers. While some states have done very well in terms of growth indicators, they are poor performers in terms of other human development indicators. So the human development dimension needs to be taken into account while formulating and implementing social-sector programmes and arriving at criteria for devolution of funds to states.

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