Continuously increasing international migration of labour—ranging from the highly educated to low and medium skilled workers, comprising families, students and now growing numbers of refugees—marks the current global universe of human mobility. In September 2019, the most recent global migrant stock has been estimated at 272 million, up from 258 million in 2017 and 221 million in 2000 (UN 2019; UN 2018).
Beginning in the 1990s through the twenty-first century, the world has witnessed increased international economic interdependence coexisting with steadily growing political barriers to global socio-economic integration between the global north (the developed countries) and the global south (the developing countries). Overcoming the hindrances to global fusion of interests, The Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) is the result of the three-year-long multilateral negotiations among the UN Member States following the launching of 2015-2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in September 2015—a breakthrough achieved by UN’s New York Declaration finally signed in Marrakesh, Morocco in December 2018. For the first time ever, GCM brought the 193 member states together on the table to debate, agree and even disagree on issues of international migration, a subject so far kept cocooned on the pretext of the so-called individual sovereignty of nations.