Abstract: Comprising plastics and other non-degradable solid waste, marine litter drifts around the global oceans posing a serious threat to marine habitats, as also human health and safety. Since legal mechanisms are not yet in place, existing mechanisms ought to be used as a framework to build on for protecting the oceanic realm.

Author is Former Advisor, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Government of India & Consultant to FAO/UNDP/UNEP/IFC. samadhwaith@gmail.com

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Average number of years that a person can expect to live in 'full health' by taking into account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury. The most commonly used measure of life expectancy is at birth (LEB).

IMR stands for infant mortality rate. IMR is the number of deaths of infants below one year per 1,000 live births. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. The rate for a given region is the number of children dying under one year of age, divided by the number of live births during the year, multiplied by 1,000.

Measure of disease that allows us to determine a person's likelihood of having a disease. It is a statistical concept referring to the number of cases of a disease that are present in a particular population at a given time. Prevalence estimates are used by epidemi-ologists, health care providers, government agencies, and insurers.

Refers to the number of individuals who develop a specific disease or experience a specific health-related event during a particular time period. Incidence measures the rate of occurrence of new cases of a disease or condition. Incidence rates can be further categorised according to different subsets of the population–e.g., by gender, by racial origin, by age group or by diagnostic category.

CBR stands for crude birth rate. The CBR is the number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year.

NRHM is the acronym for National Rural Health Mission. NRHM seeks to provide equitable, affordable and quality health care to rural population, especially the vulnerable groups. The goal of the Mission is to improve the availability of and access to quality health care by people, especially for those residing in rural areas, poor, women and children.

A term that denoteslack of proper nutrition, caused by not having enough to eat. It occurs when the body doesn't get enough nutrients. Malnutrition is a term which refers to both undernutrition (subnutrition) and overnutrition.

Rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time is known as an epidemic. For example, in 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic took the lives of nearly 800 people worldwide.

The term denotes that which is usually found among particular people or in a certain area. An infection is said to be endemic when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs.10. CDR Ans. c: CDR stands for crude death rate. CDR is the total number of deaths per year per 1,000 people. As of 2014 the crude death rate for the whole world is 7.89 per 1,000.