Abstract: Coal blocks were allotted to private companies for captive mining through a 1993 amendment to the Coal Mines Nationalisation Act (1973). However, the CAG found that the blocks were not allotted in a transparent manner, neither had the companies begun production.
A generic name for air pollution equipment which uses a range of filter bags/fabric types to separate particulate (dust, ash, powders, etc.) from the exhausting air stream. It is a required equipment as per the standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to ensure that all industrial exhaust gasses are particulate (dust) free.
A device found in power plants for generating steam for power, processing or heating purposes, or for producing hot water for heating purposes or hot water supply. Heat from an electrical combustion source is transmitted to a fluid contained within the tubes in the boiler shell.
A federal law in the US that defines EPA's responsibilities for protecting and improving its nation's air quality and the stratospheric ozone layer. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 were the last major change in the law, enacted by Congress.
A type of substance, either liquid, solid or gas, that is manually added to coal for some altering purpose. Some additives are used to even out coal, alter emissions, improve furnace operation and a variety of other purposes.
The process of retrieving energy from the burning of fuels in the most efficient way possible. To maximize combustion efficiency, it is necessary to burn all fuel material with the least amount of waste.
An electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner, is a pollution control device that removes particles from a flowing gas (such as air) using the force of an induced electrostatic charge. ESPs are highly efficient filtration devices.
Substances that are released into the air from power generating plants among other sources. Major emissions that are regulated by the federal government are nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide and mercury. Carbon dioxide is also a major emission, but is not regulated.
A gas that exits into the atmosphere via a flue, which is a pipe or channel for conveying exhaust gases from a fireplace, oven, furnace, boiler or steam generator. Quite often, it refers to the combustion exhaust gas produced at power plants.
Finely divided particles of ash entrained in gases resulting from the combustion of fuel. Approximately six million tonnes of flyash are used each year in the US in major projects such as highway construction.
A metallic element that is toxic to human beings whose emission into the environment through the combustion of coal has come under increasingly tight restrictions.