Live, Livelihood and Changing Climate cover

Vol no. 16 Issue No. 95

Inside this issue

Women Studies

Vulnerabilities in Women’s Work and Land Rights

By: Sucharita Sen

Alienation from land and distress-driven shift towards agricultural wage work leave women particularly vulnerable. Although amended inheritance laws have increased the probability of daughters inheriting fathers’ land, women’s effective control over agricultural land, though relatively higher in the southern states, continues to remain abysmally low on an average in rural India.

Smart Cities through the Gender Lens

By: Saraswati Raju

Smart cities are viewed essentially in terms of infrastructural facilities and ‘e-amenities’ aimed at improved governance, capital and investment. Although the improvement in overall governance and quality of life is laudable, understanding residents’ attitudes and behaviour towards women is also crucial.

Education

GEOSPATIAL CAREERS: Opportunities and Challenges

By: Shahnawaz

The geospatial sector has grown sizeably in the past two decades. But its future seems bleak without enough trained personnel to fill new positions. Geospatial education may need to be revamped with flexibility in curricula design, enhancement of academia-industry interaction, with emphasis on a lifelong learning process to meet this challenge.

Place of Geography in School Curriculum

By: Sarfaraz Alam

Epistemically, geography is an inclusive subject. It encompasses the entire observable domain of the earth’s surface, and is practised as part of science, social science, arts as well as technology in universities worldwide. Unfortunately in India, it is mainly taught as a social science discipline in schools.

Health

Initiatives to Reduce IMR and MMR

By: Staff Reporter

Various health care schemes of the Indian government are aimed at reducing the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR) in the country. Special focus is being given to states with poor public health indicators and high numbers of people living below the poverty line.

Government Initiatives for Cancer Treatment in India

By: Staff Reporter

The central and state governments have been running several programmes to help cancer patients. Subsidised treatment and palliative care for cancer are already in place.The AMRIT venture is a step in the right direction to make expensive medicines affordable for patients nationwide.

Tuberculosis Cases: WHO Reports a Decline

By: Staff Reporter

Despite advances in prevention, diagnosis and treatment tuberculosis remains one of the world’s biggest threats with 1.5 million tuberculosis deaths in 2014. In India it has declined from 216 per lakh population per year in 1990 to 167 in 2014.

Preventive Measures against Tobacco

By: Staff Reporter

Most cardiovascular diseases and lung disorders are caused by smoking of tobacco. Awareness, coupled with reduced production and supply are crucial measures to curb smoking.

North-east India Healthier than most States

By: Staff Reporter

Latest National Sample Survey Organisation survey records least number of ailments in the north-east India. Manipur is the most disease free state of India. The north-east states also opt for higher public health care services as compared to the other states of India.

Food

Small Holders and Bengal’s Tea Industry

By: Chinmoyee Mallik

Recent data indicates that tea cultivation is becoming increasingly popular with small and marginal holders. However, small tea growers often face problems due to fluctuating prices, and hence, need to be supported technically and financially to deal with an unstable market.

Climate Change

The Indian Himalayan Region: Role of NMSHE

By: Akhilesh Gupta, Chetna Joshi and Nisha Mendiratta

Geological processes in the Himalaya that bring natural catastrophes are continuously in motion. Though the natural processes can never be completely controlled the impact can be minimised through sustainable use of natural resources and effective planning in tune with the terrain and geo-location.

Atmospheric aerosols

By: Jagabandhu Panda and Sunny Kant

Atmospheric aerosols are produced through natural and anthropogenic means. They modulate the microphysical properties of clouds and therefore, can govern weather and climate over a region.

Ecological Restoration of Ganga Basin

By: Sandeep Kumar Behera

Ecology is the primary indicator of health for any river basin. Given the sorry state of the Ganga river basin, ecological restoration is urgently needed since river biodiversity is being rapidly lost.

Marine Litter: threat to marine biodiversity

By: V Sampath

Comprising plastics and other non-degradable solid waste, marine litter drifts around the global oceans posing a serious threat to marine habitats, as also human health and safety. Since legal mechanisms are not yet in place, existing mechanisms ought to be used as a framework to build on for protecting the oceanic realm.

Climate Change Negotiations and Policy

By: A Anurag Danda

Everyone is accountable in the climate change discourse. So UN’s divided framework of ‘us’ and ‘them’ blocs will fall short in tackling climate change. The Paris Agreement at COP 21 is currently under ratification. Immediate universal ratification is imperative.

Agriculture

Pre-treatment for improved seed germination

By: P K Chandrasekhara Pillai, K Deepa and A H Jiji

Pre-treatment of seeds through various methods enables rapid and uniform germination. In short, it accelerates the natural processes and releases the dormant life force within.

In brief

Urban growth and future projects in India

As per the Census of India 2011, the growth rate of urbanisation during 2001-11 was 31.8 per cent which was higher than the total population growth rate of 17.6 per cent during the same period. By the year 2021, more than 432 million people will live in urban areas and this is likely to increase to

Editor's Note

There are more old people now than ever before. Quickly burgeoning to a fourth of the population, India is aging fast. By the turn of this decade, we will likely no longer be the youngest nation in the world. Of the old persons, there are those that may be categorised as the oldest of old, much in t

Term Power

What is ...

Average number of years that a person can expect to live in 'full health' by taking into account years lived in less than full health due to disease and/or injury. The most commonly used measure of life expectancy is at birth (LEB).

IMR stands for infant mortality rate. IMR is the number of deaths of infants below one year per 1,000 live births. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. The rate for a given region is the number of children dying under one year of age, divided by the number of live births during the year, multiplied by 1,000.

Measure of disease that allows us to determine a person's likelihood of having a disease. It is a statistical concept referring to the number of cases of a disease that are present in a particular population at a given time. Prevalence estimates are used by epidemi-ologists, health care providers, government agencies, and insurers.

Refers to the number of individuals who develop a specific disease or experience a specific health-related event during a particular time period. Incidence measures the rate of occurrence of new cases of a disease or condition. Incidence rates can be further categorised according to different subsets of the population–e.g., by gender, by racial origin, by age group or by diagnostic category.

CBR stands for crude birth rate. The CBR is the number of live births occurring among the population of a given geographical area during a given year, per 1,000 mid-year total population of the given geographical area during the same year.

NRHM is the acronym for National Rural Health Mission. NRHM seeks to provide equitable, affordable and quality health care to rural population, especially the vulnerable groups. The goal of the Mission is to improve the availability of and access to quality health care by people, especially for those residing in rural areas, poor, women and children.

A term that denoteslack of proper nutrition, caused by not having enough to eat. It occurs when the body doesn't get enough nutrients. Malnutrition is a term which refers to both undernutrition (subnutrition) and overnutrition.

Rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time is known as an epidemic. For example, in 2003, the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic took the lives of nearly 800 people worldwide.

The term denotes that which is usually found among particular people or in a certain area. An infection is said to be endemic when that infection is maintained in the population without the need for external inputs.10. CDR Ans. c: CDR stands for crude death rate. CDR is the total number of deaths per year per 1,000 people. As of 2014 the crude death rate for the whole world is 7.89 per 1,000.

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